In the United States the principle of descent also was recognised statutorily except in the case of children whose parents though citizens had never resided in the States, but the governing theory was birth in the territory of the States. These were added to the list of citizens because citizenship no longer depended on membership of the phratries. Corporations in which the State owns the stock do not, in the United States, benefit from the immunity of the State. Jewish Colononization Association, 1901 1 K. . Even Napoleon dealt with rules concerning the status of Frenchmen abroad but did not provide for the status of foreigners in France. In my judgment the answer to the question must be in the affirmative.
But even under him, the concept of citizenship was immature. No objection was raised about the competency of the Palai Bank to claim the benefit of The main case there were two heard together was an appeal from a decision of Raman Nayar J. The disqualifications of citizenship in the past and even today are many and different from country to country. Citizenship means the members of a jural society investing the holder with all the rights and privileges enjoyed by its nationals and subjecting him to corresponding duties. Is there in law a citizenship of a group of persons who may be all citizens or some of whom may be non-citizens? The State Trading Corporation has been constituted not by any special statute or charter but under the as a Private Limited Company. The argument is not one what advanced by dropping the word 'citizen' and using the word 'national'. According to the respondent no artificial person is a citizen of India either under the Constitution or under the which was passed in 1955 in accordance with the Constitution.
The word 'nationality' itself has now come to acquire two distinct meanings political one by which is indicated the membership of a State and the other an ethnic one denoting membership of a nation. What the law does is to invest corpo 10-2 S. That leaves which gives Parliament the power to make laws for the acquisition and termination of citizenship, and all other matters relating to citizenship. Thus a corporation chartered elsewhere may enter a State to engage in local business only on such terms as the State chooses to lay down, provided these do not deprive the corporation of its rights under the Constitution-of its right, for instance, to engage in interstate commerce, or to appeal to the national courts or, once it has been admitted into a State, to receive equal treatment with corporations chartered by the latter. Resident foreigners had inter-married and though there was a partial recognition of foreigners permanently settled domiciled in Athens even from the days of Peisistratus there was no recognition of the offsprings of mixed marriages as citi- zens.
The following provisions of the Constitution of the United States may be read at this stage : Art. The State of Andhra Pradesh, therefore, denies that the State Trading Corporation being an artificial person is a citizen and consequently contends that is inapplicable because the word 'citizen' in the article refers 120 to natural persons. We also have a dedicated area for group exercises such as Zumba, Yoga and Cross Fitness. That way, the seller would be at a disadvantage as the buyer may intentionally undervalue the company and buy stocks through unfair means at a lower price. Was it intended by the Constituent Assembly when declaring the freedoms under to make a deliberate departure, and in respect ,of rights declared under to restrict the enforcement thereof against action of the law makers or the executive ,only in favour of natural persons and not in favour of artificial persons; It is in this background we may turn to the question whether, the declaration of citizenship under Arts. The first theory viewed a corporation as the national of the State in which its members or the majority of them or owning the greater part of the capital, were nationals.
Again in 1 Sinha C. Similarly the subjects of the Indian States had the rights of citizenship within their own States, and those rights were not affected by the stand- still and merger agreements of their rulers with the Domi- nion of India. I shall now make good these conclusions with reasons. But strictly speaking citizenship: 1 L. With the advent of electronic stock exchanges, the once specialised field is now accessible to even small traders.
It cannot be seriously argued that so far as citizens are concerned, freedoms regarding enjoyment of property have been granted in two articles of the Constitution, while the protection to property qua all other persons has been dealt with in alone. Trading post is recorded from 1796. But the main reason was the impact of international relations. Unless the language or the scheme of the Constitution is so compulsive, it would be difficult to reach that conclusion, on any predilection as to a limited connotation of the expression citizen occurring in It may he remembered that Constitutional practice is not inconsistent with the recognition of artificial persons as citizens. Can it be said that the word 'citizen' was purposely left vague so that a broad and liberal spirit could enter the interpretation? An incorporated company, therefore, can come up to this Court for enforcement of its fundamental rights.
At the very outset of the arguments, we indicated that we shall give our decision only on the preliminary questions and that the decision of the controversies on their merits will be left to the Constitution Bench. The process requires an investor to speculate or guess the stock movement in a particular session. Frequently asked questions: Trade name registration What is a trade name? But it is permissible, nay proper, often to consider the effect of proposed construction to find an answer to the question was that the intention of the Constitution makers? In, what is now known as the first Sholapur case, 1 , Mukherjea, J. After all it is a constitution that we are interpreting and it has again and again been laid down that those on whom falls this task have to take a broad and liberal view of what has been provided and should not rest content with the mere grammarians' role. Exploring of new markets for traditional export items and developing exports of new items. The point was not raised in this form before and ,even the observations of Mukherjea J. So, a large part of the transaction becomes debt financed while the remaining shares are held by private investors.
In attempting to determine whether the word 'citizen' in denotes only a natural person or includes a company etc. All children were inspected at birth by the heads of the tribe and those who were sickly were exposed in a ravine of Mt. The European countries applied the former and the Common Law countries the latter to determine the status. Whether the provisions of the dealing with foreign companies furnish any assistance in this behalf must also be left unanswered. In other words, in the United States there was no attempt to look behind the corporate veil. Simi- larly by the definition contained in of the Citizenship Act, 1955, the Act is made applicable only to natural persons.