Lastly he wants to crack down on employers. Broadly speaking, several approaches to political science have been advocated from time to time, and these are broadly divided into two categories that include the empirical-analytical or the scientific-behavioural approach and the legal-historical or the normative-philosophical approach. Only death could draw a curtain upon this ceaseless struggle. Comparative approach takes the cognizance of the fact that all the institutions or structures are vital to politics and its analysis. Created the concept of ideology in the sense of true or false beliefs that shape and control social actions. Confucianism advocated a hierarchical, government based on empathy, loyalty, and interpersonal relationships.
The philosophical or a priori method is, thus, reasoning from cause to effect, from a general principle to its consequences. The political methodology faculty have current research and teaching interests in such diverse topics as mass media, feminist theory, language politics, political economy, rational choice theory, and public policy. It deals with the problems of the nature and functions of the state, citizenship, rights and duties etc. Political scientists of an institutional bent, freed from the European location of political science within faculties of law, recognised that there is much material within political science not subject to legal examinations. Furthermore give immigrants the opportunity to earn their citizenship. Different demands have different levels of support.
Institutions are, therefore, created to meet human requirements. The advocates of this approach firmly believe that political philosophy is closely linked with the political ideologies. This approach believes that political events are shaped by various other factors in the society and therefore, it would be wrong to separate Political Science from other disciplines. This approach idealistic as their concern went beyond how and why political events happen to what ought to happen. We can collect dozens of instances from the pages of the history of political thought as to how psychology and politics are related. Techniques: The behaviouralists put emphasis on the use of those research tools and methods which generate valid, reliable and comparative data.
Since the questions and data are very great in number and varied in nature each political scientist or philosopher analyses them in his own way by applying his own standpoint and method. Historical Approach : Meaning and Nature of Historical Approach : The historical approach to the study of politics is one of the traditional approaches. In addition to courses on the American presidency, the U. The studies of sociologists and political scientists are interdependent. Thinkers on the subject formulate definitions of various political concepts and establish theories D.
History tells us how government, political parties and many other institutions worked, their successes and failures and from these we receive lessons which guide us in determining the future course of action. The main theme of Plato's work was to describe the nature of an ideal society. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas are two notable Christian philosophers before the Enlightenment era. In this approach, scholars seek to generate a hypothesis, which is a proposed explanation for some phenomena that can be tested empirically. The seminal work was done by Jurgen Habermas in Germany, but the most extensive literature has been in English, led by theorists such as , Joshua Cohen, Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson. Definition of Democracy: Direct and Representative Democracy Democracy stems from the words demos and kratos, roughly translated as people power or rule Du Pisani, 2010:03 which would suggest that the very core of the term and thus the foundation to this form of government is the ideal of the people ruling the people and being involved in the political decision making process, whether it be by.
But social sciences are studied in different manners. Philosophical approach is another traditional approach in Political Science. When only selected or particular aspects of various political systems are compared we call it micro-comparison. Different authors have defined it in their own ways. Integration: According to the behaviouralists, Political Science should not be separated from various other social sciences like history, sociology and economics etc. All of them were great patriots. At the very early stages of politics as an academic discipline, the great thinkers of the time were not concerned with empirical evidence; instead basing their ideas on literary analysis.
Nathan is also interested in the role of money in democratic elections. Criticism of the Philosophical Approach : In spite of the immense importance of the philosophical approach to the study of politics critics have raised several questions about its worthiness. Traditional approaches: Traditional approaches are value based. Burke was one of the biggest supporters of the American Revolution. The executive branch takes the final decision. The utilitarianism has not been strictly followed or it is ignored, but it still holds good as a policy of liberalism. Historical Approach: According to the advocates of this approach, political theory can be only understood when the historical factors like the age, place and the situation in which it is evolved are taken into consideration.
His arguments may have been deeply influential to the formation of the. The analysts and the researchers of the present epoch are investigating the functions of different institutions of Western political system and those of the less- developed countries and are also making comparisons. Political Theory Political theory is concerned mainly with the foundations of political community and institutions. Later on it developed into an intellectual movement called positivism and insisted that the social sciences must strictly adhere to the methods of the natural sciences because it considered science to be the only reliable means of perceiving the truth. According to them, what cannot be verified is not scientific. Without these approaches, Political Science cannot be studied properly. Accordingly, the post-behaviouralists opposed the efforts of the behaviouralists to make Political Science a value-free science.
First modern thinker who fully analyzed structure and meaning of obligation. We, therefore, find that so far as culture is concerned, it is the subject matter of both sociology and political science. The Philosophical method, like other methods in the study of Political Science, demands a detached and objective point of view. The historian must be sincere in collecting facts and impartial in interpreting them. The structural-functional approach may be considered as an outgrowth of the system analysis. Political theory is considered as the basis and branch of political science which attempts to arrive at generalizations, inferences, or conclusions to be drawn from the data gathered by other specialists, not only in political science, but throughout the whole range of human knowledge and experience.