They created decimals and the zero. Science and Technology: In the field of Mathematics we come across during this period a work called Aryabattya written by Aryabhata, who belonged to Patliputra. Another important progress was the discovery of modern system of numbers. The court of Chandragupta was made even illustrious by the fact that it was graced by the navaratna, a group of nine who excelled in the literary arts. Socio-economic Conditions People led a simple life.
However, he fully maintained the tradition of religious toleration. By defeating the satrap of Saurashtra, he further expanded his kingdom to the coastline of the Arabian Sea. By marrying a Lichchhavi Princes Kumaradevi he sought to gain in prestige, though Vaishali does not appear to have been a part of his kingdom. In fact, no efforts were made to impose a strict and effective control over these regions. Different varieties of silk, cloth, called Kshauma and Pattavastra are mentioned in the text of this period. Also there are so many other communities who have no king in the history of India but claim kshatriya even when they are not kshatriya Thus , in reality Guptas are real kshatriyas.
The lowest unit of administration was the village. Being a political drama, it contained exciting scenes, full of suspense and interests. Among the various industries that flourished in the Gupta period, mining and metallurgy certainly occupied the top position. The images of Siva, Vishnu and other Brahmanical gods are sculptured in some of the finest panels of the Deogarh temple Jhansi district. I would look into Arab Nationalism. Side by side, the Gupta builders constructed wonderful gateways, lofty pillars, and attractive edifices at the holy places and religious centres. In short, we can say that in the Gupta period a great variety of literature, excellent in its style and rich in its contents, was written.
Tradition has led the people to believe that Kalidasa was one of the nine gems or Navaratna of the court of King Vikramaditya of Ujjayini. Therefore, in quite a few cases, he returned the kingdom to the original kings and was satisfied only with collecting taxes from them. As a result, the Sanskrit literature reached its lofty height during the Gupta Age. The second category includes the names of the eight kings of Aryavarta, who were violently exterminated; prominent of them were Rudradwa, Ganapatinaga, Nagasena, etc. Being the Lingua franca of India, Sanskrit received utmost attention of the rulers and the educated, of religious and secular writers, and of the preachers of various faiths.
The fourth category consists of the Daivaputra Shahi Shahanushahi Kushanas , the Shaka-, Murundas, the dwellers of Sinhala Ceylon and all the other islands who paid tribute to the King. It is generally believed that during his time the Gupta Empire spanned from the Himalayas in north to the mouth of and Godavari rivers in the South, from Balkh, Afghanistan in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east. Besides them were the Pustapalas — officials whose work was to manage and keep records. Skandagupta during his reign issued four types of gold coins. Provinces, Districts and Villages : The provinces or divisions called bhuktis were governed by Uparikas directly appointed by the kings. This resulted in a 50-year waruntil the Persians gave up. The Chinese monk Lui Kang who was in India and Sri Lanka between 399 and 414 noticed general prosperity and peace-loving nature of the people.
The disciples of Aryabhatta developed mathematics and astronomy to considerable extents. The Achievements of the Gupta Empire 18. Military organization The Imperial Guptas could not have achieved their successes through force of arms without an efficient martial system. Among the Mahayana philosophers were famous thinkers like Asanga, Vasubandhu, and Dinnaga. Vatsyayana brought out his great work Nyayabhashya on the Nyaya system of philosophy. Gupta Administration : Unlike the Mauryas, the Guptas adopted such pompous titles as Parameshvara Maharajadhiraja, Paramabhattaraka, etc. Influence on East and Southeast Asia The Gupta Dynasty promoted Hinduism, but supported Buddhist and Jain cultures as well.
Practicing vocal music, dance and seven types of musical instruments including veena an Indian musical stringed instrument , flute and mridangam drum were a norm rather than exception. He wrote his famous work known as the Arya-Bhattyam. The greatest works of such immortal sons of India as Kalidasa and Aryabhatta, and the great objects of timeless appeal as Sarnath Buddha and the Ajanta fresco will continue to represent the glories of the Gupta Age. But inspite of his preoccupation with political and military affairs, he cultivated music and poetry. They also tolerated the religions of Buddhism and Jainism. After centuries of political disintegration an empire came to be established in A.
The code of Manu or Manu Smriti was revised. Much of its early history was taken up by conquest. The Gupta period is considered something of a golden age, marked by great achievements in literature, music, art, architecture, and philosophy. One of the new trends in Hinduism which came to take root in the Gupta Age was the faith in Bhakti or the intense devotion to God. Goods were transported by carts and by pack-animals. The famous Smritis of Yajnavalkya, Narada, Katyayana and Brihaspati were composed during this period.
He gave, for example, Meghavarna, king of Ceylon, permission and support for the construction of a monastery in Bodh. This brought it nearer to Hindu idol worship. The silver coins issued by him were also of four types namely, Garuda type, Bull type, Altar type and the Madhyadesha type. But when he was discovered to be a fool, he left the house in search of learning and through the grace of a goddess, ultimately became a celebrated poet. Vishakadatta is the author of the Mudrarakshasa, which deals with the schemes of the shrewd Chanakya.