He identified a set of characteristics of large organisations which helped in their rational operation. In addition to the improvement of working conditions, he filed Owen procedures that increase productivity, such as assessment procedures bersaing. Importance of managerial ability increases as one moves up the hierarchy. It focused on principles that could be used by managers to coordinate the internal activities of organizations. He graduated from John Hopkins College.
This flow forgetting employee job satisfaction as an ordinary human. He worked with Taylor from 1887 - 1919 at Midvale Steel Company. Taylor found that work was not being done scientifically in many organisations which led to wastage of human and non-human resources. The school Principal acts as a manager, not as a leader, combining multiple management styles to ensure the smooth functioning of his school. At this stage, it is considered important and worthwhile to have some knowledge of the background of the evolution of modern management thought, for then the growth of modem thinking on management can be appreciated as the fruit of a long-going historical process and development.
Coordinating: To synthesise the resources and activities of the organisation to achieve the goals. The systems approach as applied to organisations is based largely on work in biology and the physical sciences. All these changes, in turn, brought about changes in the field of management. This is because the mass media engage in various activities before getting their news, information and entertainment across to the audience. The behavioural scientists motivate people according to their need perceptions.
They thought of deleting or combining the operations of work. George Elton Mayo Australia, 1880 - 1949 : Elton Mayo was born in Australia. Although modern management theory dates primarily from the early twentieth century, there was serious thinking and theorizing about managing many years before. The modern management thought is characterised by the following features: 1. Henry Fayol France, 1841 - 1925 : Henry Fayol was born in 1941 at Constantinople in France. We can see management or management methods are being used in the history of many great civilizations.
His theory can be understood under the following headings: a Activities of a business: Fayol divided business activities into six groups: 1. A small-business owner can take this approach to motivate the employees to achieve production goals. It tries to integrate the concepts, principles, and techniques that underlie the task of managing. According to behavioural scientists, human behaviour is need-based and, therefore, people react differently to different situations. Unit or small batches 2. This theory is an extension of systems theory. He firmly believed that workers' performance in industry was influenced by the working conditions and treatment of workers.
Generally, workers want their lower-order needs to be satisfied before higher-order needs ego and self-actualization , but there are people who work for higher-order needs even at the cost of their job security. Level at which managers work, and 2. The theory focused on: i. It considers organisation as a group of individuals and identifies the reasons why individuals join groups and factors that influence the group behaviour. The undoubted leader in this field was C.
Evidence of the use of the well recognized principles of management is to be found in the organization of public life in ancient Greece, the organization of the Roman Catholic Church and the organization of military forces. Pre-classical thoughts: Robert Owen 1771-1858 He is considered as a pioneer in the field of human resource management process. He laid down how workers should stand, how his hands should move and so on. The employer has to meet the extra cost of the planning department though the foreman in this department do not work in the workshop and directly contribute towards higher production. Gilbreth Concept: Movement and fatigue related. Management felt that since this work involved long hours and was also not innovative, efficiency was low.
Finally, the system management theory focuses on the complexity and interdependency of systems by combining all components and analyzing their overall impact to the company's productivity. Concept of Management: Henry Fayol is considered the father of modern theory of general and industrial management. Classical Theory: It is the oldest theory of management and is, therefore, called the traditional theory of management. He urged the combination of engineers and economists as industrial managers. If higher-order needs of workers are strong, managers adopt participative style of leadership.